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Any nervous system injury recovery comes under Neuro rehabilitation. In case of serious disability caused by brain damage, the patient’s abilities are suddenly shattered. Neuro rehabilitation helps the skill and attitudes of the disabled person to help him to improve. Neuro rehabilitation covers plethora of disorder such as cerebral palsy, stroke/paralysis, parkinsons, alzheimers,vertigo, migraine, muscular dystrophy multiple sclerosis, cerebellar ataxia, lower motor neuron disorders, upper motor neuron disorders, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, bell’s palsy / facial nerve palsy.
Parkinson’s disease is caused by loss of neurons in a region of the brain that coordinates motor functions (movement). It usually happens when nerve cells in the brain don’t produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to progressive deterioration of motor function due to loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The primary symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are all related to voluntary and involuntary motor function and usually start on one side of the body. Symptoms are mild at first and will progress over time. Some individuals are more affected than others are. Studies have shown that by the time that primary symptoms appear, individuals with Parkinson’s disease will have lost 60% to 80% or more of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain.
Muscular dystrophy is a conditions that lead to muscle weakness i.e, progressive loss of muscle mass and consequent loss of strength.This damage and weakness is due to the lack of a protein called dystrophin, which is necessary for normal muscle function. The absence of this protein can cause problems with walking, swallowing, and muscle coordination. Most common form of Muscular dystrophy is Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It typically affects young boys, but other variations can strike in adulthood
There are more than 30 different types of muscular dystrophy. There are nine different categories used for diagnosis.
- Trouble walking
- Loss of reflexes
- Difficulty standing up
- Poor posture
- Bone thinning
- Mild intellectual impairment
- Breathing difficulties
- Swallowing problems
- lung and heart weakness
HOW PHYSIOTHERAPY HELPS:
General exercises: A range of motion and stretching exercises can help combat the inevitable inward movement of the limbs as muscles and tendons shorten. Limbs tend to become fixed in position, and these types of activities can help keep them mobile for longer. Standard low-impact aerobic exercises such as walking and swimming can also help slow the disease’s progression.
Breathing assistance: As the muscles used for breathing become weaker, it may be necessary to use devices to help improve oxygen delivery through the night. In the most severe cases, a patient may need to use a ventilator to breathe on their behalf.
Mobility aids: Canes, wheelchairs, and walkers can help the person stay mobile.
Braces: These keep muscles and tendons stretched and help slow their shortening. They also give added support to the user when moving.
A potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord .It is an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and body.In this disease protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers are attacked by immune system that causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.
- Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain during eye movement
- Tremor, lack of coordination Slurred speech
- Weakness in one or more limbs that typically occurs on one side of your body at a time, or the legs and trunk
- Prolonged double vision
- Tingling or pain in parts of your body
- Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward (Lhermitte sign)
A complete interruption of the supply of oxygen to the brain is referred to as cerebral anoxia.The brain needs a continuous supply of oxygen to survive. If the oxygen supply is interrupted, the functioning of the brain is disturbed immediately and irreversible damage can quickly follow which ultimately leads to a condition called cerebral anoxia.
- Cardiac or respiratory arrest
- Near drowning
- Exposure to high altitudes
- Smoke inhalation
- Carbon monoxide inhalation
- Drug overdose
- Electric shock
- Irregular heart rhythm or poor function of the heart muscle after a heart attack, resulting in inefficient supply of blood to the brain
- Very low blood pressure (shock), resulting from blood loss (haemorrhage) or disturbed heart function
- Very severe asthma attack
- Complication of general anaesthesia (where there has been inadequate oxygen supply or cardiac arrest) .
This is ataxia caused by a dysfunction of the cerebellum – a region of the brain involved in the assimilation of sensory perception, coordination, and motor control. Cerebellar ataxia can cause neurological problems such as floppiness, lack of coordination between organs, muscles, limbs, or joints ,impaired ability to control distance, power, and speed of an arm, hand, leg, or eye movement ,difficulty in accurately estimating how much time has passed , inability to perform rapid nand alternating movements.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Uncoordinated body movements
- Uncoordinated eye movements (nystagmus)
- Clumsiness in daily activities
- Difficulty speaking or clumsy speech (dysarthria)
- Difficulty walking or unsteady gait
- Dizziness and headache
Migraines are severe, recurring, and painful headaches. They can be preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs.It’s a type of headache of varying intensity, often accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light and sound.There are several types of migraine, including migraine with aura – where migraine occurs without the specific warning signs, migraine aura without headache, also known as silent migraine – where an aura or other migraine symptoms are experienced, but a headache doesn’t develop.Migraines can begin at any stage of life like itcan begin in childhood or may not occur until early adulthood but the fact is that Women are more likely than men to have migraines.One of the most common risk factors for having migraines is Family history.
- Headaches usually feels throbbing,
- pounding, or pulsatingChills
- Increased urination
- FatigueLoss of appetiteNausea and vomiting
- trouble finding words
- Sensitivity to light or sound
- Feeling mentally dull, like your thinking is not clear or sharp
- Increased need for sleep
- Neck pain
- Caffeine withdrawal
- Changes in hormone levels during a woman’s menstrual cycle or with the use of birth control pills
- Exercise or other physical stress
- Missed meals
- Certain foods may also trigger migraine
GB(Guillain Barre) SYNDROME:
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease.This is a rare but serious autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system. It can lead to weakness and paralysis that may last for months or years.GBS can affect people of any age or either sex, although it is slightly more common in older people and males. The condition of GB Syndrome usually begins following an infectious disease.Some viruses in infectious diseases alter the immune sysstem making it forget which cells it doesn’t attack.It can cause muscle weakness, reflex loss, and numbness or tingling in parts of your body.
- Prickling, pins and needles sensations in your fingers, toes, ankles or wrists
- Difficulty with bladder control or bowel function
- Rapid heart rate
- Low or high blood pressure
- Difficulty breathing
- Weakness in your legs that spreads to your upper body
- Unsteady walking or inability to walk or climb stairs
- Difficulty with eye or facial movements, including speaking, chewing or swallowing
- Severe pain that may feel achy or cramplike and may be worse at night
BELLS & FACIAL PARALYSIS:
Facial paralysis is a condition in which the facial muscles become paralyzed. Basically, the muscles in the face become paralyzed due to the facial nerve being injured or experiencing some kind of trauma. Facial paralysis can also occur due to infection, tumors, and other diseases.A person with facial paralysis will be unable to move some or all of the muscles on the affected side of their face. Facial paralysis not only presents the sufferer with a disproportionate face, but can also cause other disabilities that make swallowing, speaking, and chewing quite difficult. Bell’s Palsy is the most common form of facial paralysis, and is caused by inflammation of the facial nerve, and is most likely related to reactivation of a virus known to cause cold sores (Herpes Simplex Virus). This swelling prevents the nerve from sending correct signals to the brain and facial muscles, resulting in paralysis.
Symptoms most often start suddenly, but may take 2 – 3 days to show up.
- Gripping and movements of the wrist hurt, especially wrist flexion
- Symptoms are almost always on one side only. They may range from mild to severe.The face will feel stiff or pulled to normal side, and may look different.
- Difficulty eating and drinking;
- food falls out of one side of the mouth.
- Drooling due to lack of control over the muscles of the face.Sometimes person may have a cold shortly before the symptoms of Bell’s palsy begin.
HOW PHYSIOTHERAPY HELPS IN REHABILITATION:
- To maintain muscle tone of the affected facial muscles.
- Muscle re-education exercises, useful in restoring normal movements.
- To reduce flaccidity (in case of Bell’s palsy) & spasticity (in case of Facial Palsy).
- Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for denervated facial muscles.
- Soft tissue techniques are implemented prior to recovery in order to help prevent permanent contractures of the paralyzed facial muscles.
- Taping technique.
- To maintain and improve mobility
- Quality of life
- Rehabilitate to ADL
Apart from basic Neuro Rehabilitation, Dr. Sonal Kapoor Physiotherapy Clinic provides other treatments as well.